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ASP.NET MVC is a technology which uses MVC architectural pattern to make webites and webapps.It provides the developer an environment where his code is not going to messed up as it gives the best separation of concern.Moreover a developer can think in terms of actions instead of pages as its way of doing things is action first instead of Page first unlike webforms.
ADO.NET is not more than a set of classes so you can think of it as a library that acts as a bridge between data sources and any .net application.obviously you will keep data in a database and will write your business logic or any code somewhere else like the platform you selected for development of your dream website or app or anything whether it be MVC or Webforms anything.But remember your selected platform will not allow you to write sql directly to talk to database so you need a mediator ,that mediator is ADO.NET.
EF is an ORM tool which helps to design your persistance layer quickly.Now you can ask but why ? we already had ado.net and it was doing well,but wait and think wouldn't it be great if you can think and treat your database in terms of classes and object.where your table is a class it's columns are properties and each row is an object ,now as a developer you can play with it.That is the role of any ORM and Entity framework is just an ORM that's it.
Linq enables a developer to query any datasource without having knowledge of internal architecture.confused right?meaning if you need to query databases sql is mandatory likewise if you need to query XML you will have to know xpath,but linq removes the load from your shoulder and allow you write in one language which is very similar to sql for any datasource and it will take care of the rest.
A framework used to design user interfaces easily and quickly.If you are excited to know how to use such a wonderful UI framework with asp.net mvc then this is for you.Start learning today.